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AdamKeto

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  1. AdamKeto

    Progressive Overload

    Overview Progressive overload with respect to resistance training relates to an increase of stress placed upon the musculoskeletal system, typically by increasing the repetitions/weight of a given exercise (though other methods exist). The Science To attain more strength/increase muscle hypertrophy, a person must trigger the bodies natural adaptive response by increasing the demands placed on the muscle. Progressive overload stimulates muscle hypertrophy. In addition to this, it also stimulates the development of stronger and denser ligaments, tendons, bones, and cartilage. Progressive overload also incrementally increases blood flow to exercised regions of the body and stimulates more responsive nerve connections between the brain and the muscles involved. Methods Progressive overload can be approached in several different ways, by increasing the; Resistance: Increasing the weight Repetitions: Perform more repetitions per set Volume: = (sets x reps) x resistance, ergo add more sets to your routine. Frequency: Increasing how frequently you train a muscle ( recommended 2x per muscle group per week) It can also be achieved by decreasing the amount of resting time between each set.
  2. AdamKeto

    Resistance Training

    Resistance training , also known as weight training, relates to any exercise which results in the muscles contracting against an external resistance. Those undertaking resistance training programs do so with the expectation of increasing mass, strength, and/or endurance. Resistance training works by causing microscopic tears in the muscle. These small tears are then repaired in a process known as muscle protein synthesis, which leads to muscle hypertrophy. Catabolism is the state in which the muscle is broken down by your body (muscular atrophy). Resistance training can help to avoid catabolism of muscle, but the individual will still need to consume adequate amounts of protein to outweigh breakdown. Anabolism is the opposite of catabolism and refers to a state of muscle growth (hypertrophy).
  3. AdamKeto

    Five Fat Myths You Probably Still Believe

    The world is obsessed with fat, and in particular, fat loss. In typical human fashion, when a topic has a broad appeal you can be sure that it has its fair share of myths and misinformation to accompany it. This list breaks down five myths you probably still believe about fat loss. Myth #1: You Can Spot-reduce Fat One of the most commonly recurring myths is the notion that you can target fat from a specific region of your body. Do you want a flat stomach? Then you must do sit-ups or other core-focused exercises. Do you have flabby bingo wings? Make sure you work out those arms then. Right? Wrong. Whilst it's true that exercises that focus on your core, for example, will build the muscle up, the subcutaneous fat will not necessarily be "burnt" from the same area. Your body doesn't have a site-specific relationship with fat the same way as it does with muscle hypertrophy. Generally speaking, if you work out a muscle group sufficiently and protein intake exceeds protein breakdown, you will see growth in that muscle group. With fat, however, your body will utilize this from anywhere. So despite the fact that it may take it from your stomach when working out your core... it might not, and instead take it from a different area of your body entirely. In short: fat loss tends to be generalized and irrespective of the area of the body you exercise. Myth #2: Converting Fat into Muscle Through Resistance Training Those new to training, or those returning to training after a significant break, can indeed burn fat and build muscle at the same time in a process that is referred to as a body recomposition, the fat itself is not converted into muscle. This is a common misconception. Fat is stored in your adipose tissue and is made up of triglycerides. Muscle hypertrophy is caused by protein synthesis; a process whereby individual cells construct their specific proteins from amino acids. Essentially, both are physiologically distinct from one another and made up of different cells. Fat is made up of adipose tissue and muscle is made up of proteins. To cause muscle hypertrophy in a meaningful way, a person, generally speaking, must be in a calorific surplus and must eat sufficient protein while employing a resistance training program. Your fat, on the other hand, is simply stored energy. The only way to burn fat is to eat in a caloric deficit, which is contrary to the methods of causing muscle hypertrophy. As mentioned in specific cases, you can "burn" fat and build muscle simultaneously, but fat does not become muscle. Both fat-loss and muscle hypertrophy are independent processes and do not have a cause-effect relationship with each other despite rare instances of simultaneous occurrence. Myth #3: Eating Fat Makes You Fatter It sounds logical on the surface — eating more fat makes you fatter, right? Well, not exactly. Storing fat has very little to do with what you eat, but instead how much you eat. Eat too much — whether it be protein, carbohydrates or fats — and you will store that extra energy in your adipose (fat) tissue. Whilst we would recommend you eat whole foods and fortified foods, this is advice for your overall nutrition and not necessarily fat-loss related. To lose fat, it is quite simple: you need take in fewer calories than your body requires to maintain your current weight. This is known as a caloric deficit. What this means is that if you maintain your current weight when eating 2000kcal per day, then you must eat less than this to lose weight, and therefore fat mass. Tip: Eating 500kcal less than your maintenance (total daily energy expenditure or TDEE) daily will lead to approximately 1lb of weight loss per week. Despite each gram of fat has more than double the calories (9kcal) than one gram of protein/carbohydrates (both 4kcal respectively), it is also true that fats, (and indeed protein) are more satiating than carbohydrates. This is due to the fact fats & protein digest slower than carbohydrates, thus leaving you feeling fuller for longer. In short: take in fewer calories (input) than you use (output). Myth #4. You Cannot Burn Fat on a High-fat Diet Contrary to popular belief, a high-fat diet may, in fact, be preferable to the traditional high-carb, low-fat diet that we are typically fed (no pun intended) by the fitness community. The ketogenic diet has shown to be an effective weight (and fat) loss tool. By limiting carbohydrate intake to 5% (or 30g net carbs per day) and keeping fat intake at 65%-75% of your daily allowance, your body will enter a state of ketosis. In this state your body, which is normally using glucose for energy (provided by carbohydrates), instead uses ketone bodies. These ketone bodies are made from triglycerides (fat). It usually takes a few days for your body to enter a state of ketosis, as it must deplete the stored glycogen first. However, you must still remain in a caloric deficit. The principle of calories in vs calories out explained above is true for any "diet". You can't burn fat whilst at a caloric surplus. Your body will utilize the fat from your diet first and burn your stored fat when it requires more energy. In this respect, the keto diet is no different to any other. However, when restricting your carbohydrate intake, your body will not need to burn off your glycogen stores. And therein lies the true benefit of a ketogenic diet, from a fat-loss perspective. Myth #5: Saturated Fat Clogs Your Arteries The popular belief that dietary saturated fat clogs your arteries and leads to coronary heart disease is seemingly not as true as we once thought. A meta-analysis conducted and published in the British Medical Journal suggested that there is no link between dietary saturated fat and increased risk of heart disease. Instead, a focus on eating whole foods, undertaking regular exercise and minimizing stress should be advocated over the dogmatic belief that serum lipid (fat) content in a person's blood is to blame. And there you have it: five myths about loss that you possibly believed have been dispelled. With the constant changes in how we, as people, view fitness and health, it's understandable that we may still hold some old school thoughts about the subject. But there is always an evolution of knowledge, and it's something we should embrace and share amongst our peers.
  4. AdamKeto

    Macronutrients

    Overview Macronutrients are nutrients that are required in large quantities as part of our diet. The three macronutrients required by humans are: Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Energy is provided by each macronutrient in the form of calories (kcal). The approximate amount of calories each macronutrient provides per gram (g) is as follows: Carbohydrates (1g) = 4 kcal Proteins (1g) = 4 kcal Fats (1g) = 9 kcal Carbohydrates A carbohydrate is a biomolecule that is made of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen and oxygen atoms have a ratio of 2:1; much the same as water, albeit with a few exceptions, which may explain the significant loss of water weight on low carb diets such as the ketogenic diet. Technically speaking, carbohydrates are the hydrates of carbon (hence the name). The term carbohydrate is synonymous with saccharide — a group that includes cellulose, sugar and starch. The saccharides are split into four main groups: Monosaccharides Disaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides and disaccharides are commonly referred to as 'sugars' and are usually recognizable by names with the suffix "-ose." E.g., glucose. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are typically polymers of simple sugars like monosaccharides, the amount of which is between 3-10 monosaccharides for oligosaccharides and >10 for polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are what make up your glycogen stores in your muscles and liver. Proteins Proteins are macromolecules (aka large bio-molecules) made up of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. A protein is made up of at least one long polypeptide (a linear chain of amino acids residues). Short polypeptides containing less than 20-30 residues are considered as peptides (or oligopeptides) and not as proteins. Once a protein is formed, it will exist for a certain period of time (ranging from minutes to years, but for most proteins in human cells it is 1-2 days) before becoming degraded and ultimately recycled through a process known as protein turnover. Many proteins act as enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions. As such, they are incredibly important to metabolism. In humans, proteins are fundamental in the diet to provide the essential amino acids that cannot be otherwise synthesized from within the body itself. Protein is commonly known for its role in the growth and repair of our bodies and those looking to build muscle mass often favour higher amounts of protein in their diets for this reason. Fats Fats, also known as triglycerides, are all esters of the alcohol glycerol and fatty acid chains. Fats in the wider sense are commonly synonymous, and placed under the broad umbrella of lipids (as not all lipids are triglycerides). However, in the stricter sense, fats are lipids that are solid at room temperature, whereas oils are lipids that are liquid at room temperature. Fats undertake structural and metabolic functions, and as such they are a necessary part of the human diet. This is due to the fact that some essential fatty acids are not synthesized by the human body, so consumption is important. Fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K can only be digested, absorbed and transported in conjunction with fats. Fats play a fundamental role in promoting healthy cell function, protecting organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and maintaining healthy hair and skin. Fatty acids tend to be described based on length: SCFA = Short Chain Fatty Acids MCFA = Medium Chain Fatty Acids LCFA = Long Chain Fatty Acids VLCFA = Very Long Chain Fatty Acids Note: most fats in the food we eat are made up of MCFA and LCFAs, whether the source vegetable or animal in nature. Fats and oils are categorized dependent on their molecular structure — in particular, the number and bonding of carbon atoms. Saturated fats have no double bonds between the carbons in the chain, whereas unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms (those with multiple double carbon bonds are referred to as polyunsaturated fats). Unsaturated fats can be split into cis fats and trans fats; the latter of which is rare in nature. Studies favor cis unsaturated fats over saturated fats in regards to cardiovascular health. However, trans fat, a form of unsaturated fat, has been found to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is advised generally to replace trans and saturated fats with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats in your diet. Despite Hooper et al's findings in 2015, an article published in the British Medical Journal in 2016 found that dietary saturated fat was of no consequence to the health of one's heart. Fats stored in the body is known as adipose tissue.
  5. AdamKeto

    Ketogenic Diet

    Overview The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that is popular as a fat loss diet within the fitness community. The diet forces your body to utilize fats for energy over carbohydrates. In the absence of carbohydrates (and thus glucose) the liver produces ketone bodies and fatty acids from fats. The most notable ketone bodies are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate in respect to energy. Once the ketone level becomes elevated, the body enters a state of ketosis in which your body will burn fat for energy including your body fat (provided that you are in a caloric deficit). Your brain does require some glucose to function, despite being able to function better on ketones. Your body will provide this from the small number of carbs eaten and through a process called gluconeogenesis where fat/protein is converted by your liver into glucose. Macro Distribution A typical macro ratio of a ketogenic diet is: 70% Fats 20% Protein 5% Carbs Note: The USDA includes dietary fibre in a products nutritional figures as part of the carbohydrate total and as such food products sold within the US will combine dietary fibre and carbohydrates. For Keto to accurately track your carb intake subtract the dietary fibre away from the carbohydrates to identify the net carb figure. In countries like the UK this is already done for you. Check your local regulations to be sure. Keto Flu and Subsequent Weight Loss It can take between 2-7 days to enter a state of ketosis. The initial weight loss is water weight for the first few weeks and many may also experience 'Keto Flu' for up to 5 days while their body adapts to the diet. Some symptoms may include: Sugar cravings Dizziness Brain fog Irritability Poor focus and concentration Stomach pains Nausea Cramping Confusion Muscle soreness Insomnia Three weeks is typically, and approximately, when body fat stores will be utilized for energy — given the person is in a caloric deficit.
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